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诺邓,一部盐业贸易的兴衰史——云南云龙县诺邓古村自助游攻略(2015年修订版)

发布时间:2013年11月21日 编辑:大元 访问:68791 评论:31条 发表评论! 纠错!
所属地区: 云南 大理 适合人群: 所有人 出游难度: 轻松
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可信标志: (本攻略已通过所有细节核实,读者可放心参考。)
攻略标签: 传统村落 诺邓 诺邓盐 诺邓火腿 白族 遥远的诺邓 舌尖上的中国 太极锁水 ◎切换到无图简洁版

  本村落已列入中华人民共和国四部局(住建部、文化部、财政部、文物局)共同组织评选的中国传统村落名录。远方网与国家四部局联合发起全国“保护性旅行”号召,倡议游客与旅游从业者保护各类遗产,实现文明负责任的旅行。点击查看更多细节 http://ctcl.likefar.com/ 

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(诺邓民居错落有致,前后人家之间楼院相接  作者:王呵呵)
  说起云南丽江的大研古镇,也许知道的人很多。然而,谈起大理云龙县的诺邓,可能知其名者甚少,了解其历史的更不多。诺邓是一颗埋藏在深山的有历史价值的明珠。“诺邓”一词是白语的译音,意思是“有老虎的山坡”。这个“有老虎的山坡”在古代可是个了不得的地方,它的历史可谓源远流长。唐代樊绰的《蛮书》中已经对诺邓有明确记载,此书的成书年代在唐懿宗咸通三年,即公元862年。以此推算,诺邓至今至少应该有1140年以上的历史。这就是说,这里最迟在唐朝就己经凿井制盐,是一个典型的以盐井为生存依托的村落。
  诺邓出产的盐,盐质非常好,古时在滇西久负盛名。正是由于有了优质的盐,诺邓很快成为被史家所称叹的“茶马古道”上联缀的一颗耀眼明珠。据有关史料记载,鼎盛时期诺邓村中常住户达400多户,近3000人,另有行商、工匠、杂艺等数千流动人口。当时的诺邓真可谓一个不能令人小虎觑的经济发展亮点,它的东边通向大理、昆明,南面直至保山、腾冲,西接六库、片马,北连兰坪、丽江。

(因交通不便,这里依旧靠马驮运货物赚钱  作者:Mr.Rock)
  不难想象,1000多年前这个小小山村云集四方商贾,百业兴旺昌盛。正是由于有了当年的繁荣兴盛,历经千年风霜雨雪的诺邓沉淀下了众多的历史文物古迹。顺着印烙着深深马蹄痕的青石板道拾级而上,你可以看到1000多年前为诺邓先民们造福的那口古老盐井,也可以看到当年由朝廷钦命、威镇一方的五井提举司留下的衙门(旧址)。另有玉皇阁道教建筑群、财神殿、龙王庙、万寿宫、贞节牌坊和伸向远方的古驿道等……无一不向后人诠释着当年这里的辉煌和显赫。
  诺邓也是一座难得的白族民居建筑历史博物馆。从南诏时期开始,由于盐业经济的繁荣,有力促进了诺邓村落文化的发展。这个小小的山村虽然经历了1000多年的时光洗礼,但一直保持着四个不变:以“诺邓”冠名的村名不变,村中居民以白族为唯一族种不变,习用语言长期使用白语不变,村民赖以生存的产业长期以制盐为主不变。这些不变,在云南省村落发展史上实属罕见。走在青石铺就的村道上,你仿佛走进了一座白族民居建筑历史博物馆。“三方一照壁”、“四合五天井”,这里的民居建筑式样和特点基本与大理地区的白族民居相同。当然,相同之中也有不同,那就是由于诺邓的地理高差突出,最低的地方海拔为 1900米,而最高处的海拔则有2200多米,如此大的高差带来了民居建筑必须依山而建。于是,诺邓所独有的建筑特色就自然出现了。

(《舌尖上的中国》让诺邓火腿名声大噪,其腌制火腿最重要的调料是诺盐  作者:谢罡)
  这里的每一处院落都巧妙利用山势地形布局,一层空着一层往上走,错落有致,层次分明。站在诺邓对面的山道上,抬眼一望,只见映人眼帘的民居建筑鳞次栉比,前后人家之间楼院相接,往往是前面人家楼上的后门即通着后面人家的大院。据了解,保持完好、纯粹白族风格的院落如今大约还有近百处,主要是以明朝和清朝时期的居多。
  穿行在诺邓,静得出奇,偶尔留守的老人都懒得理会你的存在,也许逝去的太多又太遥远,生存的压力让人们离开了家园。成也盐业,败也盐业。为了熬盐的能源利用,过度的砍伐已使周边尽是童山,只有村里残留的大树伴随着大夫第、盐务署、龙王庙、五课提举司,告诉你一个始于汉代的盐的传奇。
  在村口那间屋子,就是诺邓井旧址。如今仅有一口盐井,周围常年有水渗出,像块沼泽地,在干一点的地方有白色盐颗粒。
  山顶的文庙武庙里,如今只剩下木构框架,武庙成了小学生们做饭的厨房,诺邓曾经的人杰地灵又回到了山村文化的沙漠。与拆掉的文庙相比,玉皇阁依旧完整,登上楼阁,迎面相对的是对面山顶的寺庙。盐业衰落了,村庄寂静了,教育荒废了,只有寺庙道观还在守卫着人们的祈望,孤独而渺茫。

(黄永寿祖上传下了不少宝物,家中自建博物馆  作者:酒鬼色)
  一个300多人的小山村,每家每户都有历史背景和价值不斐的古董,家族先辈留下的手稿、工艺品,亲手触摸这些东西时,才真切地感到文化的深厚。我曾在一家自称是乾隆进士后裔的家中见到雕刻精致的板壁纹饰和进士大人使用过的大号雕花书案。书案被遗忘在偏僻的山村里几百年,雕饰的色泽也一年年加深,现在看上去,已经是纯粹的灰黑色,炭化了一般,厚重而不失气派。同样沉重厚实的条案上放着一个随便用胶泥粘合起来的碎瓷花瓶,看上去也是明代遗物。
  还有一种树,也印象深刻,是大青树。大青树是诺邓的一个地理标志,要打听某家某户,村里人会告诉你,从大青树往哪哪走。这里的房子依山而建,巷道便借着山形七拐八绕,据说从村口到最高处,一共有999级台阶。9是阳数之极,中国人喜欢用99、999这类数字,表示多的意思。踩着一路的石阶走来,也真是累了,大青树下有石桌、石凳,正好坐下休息。
  游历在古镇,你会常常惊叹岁月的积淀,牌坊、祠堂和大院里的每一块精雕都藏着前辈流离的辛酸,把打拼天下的富庶与荣耀带回乡里,尽情展示。所以,每当走进江南的古镇和徽州的村落,总是看到江南巨富们回到乡梓的显摆,感叹华丽外表下的怅然。但是,走进诺邓,不会感到半点虚幻,你会看到了一种真实的从容,一种脱离了俗气的时间之美,一首生于斯,长于斯的乡土富饶之诗!
(文字作者:勾六零

诺邓四面环山,地处偏远,古时进京赶考需要走半年  作者:万有引力

一位老人在大青树下闲坐  作者:茶馆

五井提举司衙门外迁,这里就演变成了黄氏家族私宅  作者:闲庭普洱茶

现在诺邓的村民仍然用古法制盐,它是诺邓火腿不可或缺的调味料 作者:xy341

原来的万寿宫已是村民住处,仍留存有一块明嘉靖时修缮的碑文  作者:万有引力

在南山头看整个诺邓  作者:茈湖雨衫

大青树是村中心,村民们常在此喝茶聊天  作者:流浪的歌

遇到大公事,村里人都在外支灶做饭  作者:mafengwo

贡爷院是一户杨姓人家,世代均系贡生出身  作者:林坚

四合五天井是诺邓最大的民宅,现已是客栈,图为其中的老院子  作者:米绫玛

典型的四合一天井的白族民居建筑 作者:佚名

盐和火腿是大多数人对诺邓的印象  作者:Mr.Rock

文庙的棂星门是滇西地区现存最大也是最古老的木牌坊  作者:万有引力

没有了盐,《舌尖上的中国》成为诺邓的新招牌  作者:yyr

盐曾是诺邓的经济支柱,对面山上曾经繁茂的植被因制盐被砍伐  作者:Mr.Rock

诺邓村内多是石板路和台阶,不能通车辆  作者:流浪的歌

村东有一块空地,是村中的活动中心  作者:王呵呵

上面的房子是“五滴水”,雨水落到院子经过层层瓦檐需要滴五滴  作者:王呵呵

诺邓古村景点介绍


(北山上的民居建筑层层叠叠,号称北山重楼  作者:Mr.Rock)
  诺邓位于云南大理云龙县城以北的深山里,是一个有着上千年历史的白族村寨。“诺邓”这个村名自唐代南诏时期以来,近1100多年不变,堪称地理史上的奇迹。该村曾因盐业而发展,一度是滇西地区的经济重镇,解放后,海盐大量开发,诺邓失去了盐这个经济支柱,从此尘封于世。现有着滇西最集中的明清古建筑群和明清文化遗存,保留完好的古村风貌,原态原貌相当完整,在云南以至国内都是十分罕见。
  诺邓如今已成为国家级历史文化名村,凡在中国大地上见到的寺庙、牌坊、会馆、祠堂、府第、巷道、墓葬……在这个小小村落里都有,亦是研究中国古代盐井文化的活村料。“诺邓”,白族语为“有老虎的山坡”,彝语“黑”为“诺”,林深竹密的沟箐为“邓(赕)”,意为“林木茂盛的地 方”。这里曾经森林茂密,后因煮盐业,林木渐被砍伐殆尽,现已是光山秃岭。
  云龙县下辖10个乡镇,果朗乡为其中之一。这个乡位于云龙县城西北部,是距县城最近的一个乡。果郎乡共有3个村公所,其中一个叫诺邓村公所,诺邓村公所占地150平方公里,共有25个自然村,2000多人口。我们这里所说的诺邓村即为诺邓村公所下的诺邓自然村。

  景点信息
  地址:云南大理州云龙县县城西北7公里处,诺邓村
  门票:无
      电话:云龙县旅游局 0872-5523287 
  景区级别:中国历史文化名村、全国首批“中国景观村落”、云南十大旅游古镇之一。
      相关网站:http://www.ndly.org/artc-25-205.shtml
  历史地位:诺邓在历史上地位非凡,因为盐井带来的高税收,朝廷直接派官员管理,明朝在此设立了中央直属单位“五井提举司”,可以说在封建王朝时期诺邓是一个经济特区。虽然是个小村子,却享受县一级的规格礼制。

景点看点
  诺邓村现有1项州级文物保护单位,24项县级文物保护单位。目前保留着60多座明清时期的民居建筑、40多座民国时期的民居建筑和20多座古庙宇等公共建筑以及5000多米的街巷村道,此外全村还有百年以上的古木200余株,村民家中还保留有上万件的古董文物。

(精美绝伦的棂星门  作者:Mr.Rock)
庙宇建筑群
  诺邓村深受宗教文化的影响,有玉皇阁、文庙、武庙、龙王庙、棂星门等众多明清时期的庙宇建筑,周围现存庙宇还有东山方向的香山寺、古岭寺和王母寺,都是两进院式建筑;北面山中有观音寺等建筑,西南面古道上还有两道贞节牌坊。至于古墓、碑刻等建筑则遍布四山。
  玉皇阁建筑群
  玉皇阁建筑群在村子的最高处,海拔2300米。这里古木参天,殿阁如聚,周围全是高大的古黄连木,树高多达三四十米,最古老的树龄已有800多年。大殿前有棂星门、弥勒寺;后有静室;殿右有武庙(关公庙)及文庙(孔庙)等。
  玉皇阁是滇西地区现存的极少见的三层阁楼式古建筑,始建于明嘉靖年间。主体建筑包括三层阁楼大殿及静室,古代是著名的道教宫观,光咸丰时期曾数度被焚,后重建。大院内有明代的梅树及翠柏、紫薇、金桂等。大殿顶层上现存的藻井绘画“二十八星宿图”可称为“诺邓一绝”,在研究中国古代宇宙观和天文、艺术、建筑等方面都有一定的参考价值。
  棂星门:此门建于明嘉靖年间,今门面尚存。正门最上方大书“腾蛟”二字,反面大书“起风”二字,又叫“腾蛟起凤坊”,它是滇西现存最大的古木牌访。此门飞檐斗拱,雄奇高大。据说,诺邓的一个举人与昆明的举人在一起谈及家乡,昆明举人夸耀金马碧鸡坊雄壮,诺邓举人不服,回到家乡便仿金马碧鸡坊修建了棂星门,且故意比之高出三尺。此事真实性难以考究,但它反映出诺邓盐业经济发展的水平和实力。
  文庙:即孔庙,明代嘉靖年间修建,按明朝礼制,县一级地方才有文庙,但诺邓是个例外。文庙独立成院,有主殿及两厢房,塑有孔圣人及其七十二贤徒像,是诺邓人祭孔祈求文化昌盛的场所。但文庙在文革中被毁,仅存空屋,长期作为诺邓小学教室和学生煮饭场所使用,屋内墙壁烟火痕迹尚存,房屋几近倒塌,无人管护。
  龙王庙
  龙王庙遗迹至今尚存,庙屋东端还存有龙王的牌位,已被列为县文物保护单位。一般来说,祭龙王主要是祈求多雨,而产盐之地则是祈求少雨,以使卤水保有较高的浓度。龙王庙前有一古戏台,为传统飞檐翘角方型建筑,是村里比较宽平的一块空地,凡村里大小集会,均在此举行。
  万寿宫
  万寿宫为明清江西商人在全国各地所修建的会馆名称,由此可推知,历史上这里的盐业生产曾为江西商人所经营。万寿宫的房屋如今已分给村民李文茂居住,现古建筑犹存部份木架结构,前楼基本完好,房中至今还留有一点文物。万寿宫曾改名祝寿寺,李文茂家中留存有一块明嘉靖丙辰提举李琼题的修祝寿寺碑文。村中人普遍说万寿宫建于元代,初名万寿宫,明代一度改成庙宇,清代又改名万寿宫,但从明代江西商人的活动推测,应该是建于明代。

(每年冬季是制盐的日子,主要用于腌制火腿  作者:xy341)
古盐业文化建筑
  诺邓的演变发展完全依赖于盐业经济的兴衰,由于封建王朝高度重视盐业生产,村中保存较完整的盐井、盐局、盐课提举司衙门旧址以及驿路、盐马古道等古代建筑,是研究云南古代盐业经济文化的宝贵活教材。
  古盐井遗址
  诺邓盐井自汉朝开采以来至今两千余年,“诺邓井”之名距今也有一千三百多年,现存盐井、井房及煮盐大灶等建筑。盐井是一口21米深的直井,古代用人工汲水的方法从下面取卤再分给各家“灶户”煮盐。解放后,曾为集体所有,作为社队企业生产食盐,直到1996年才停产。诺邓盐井为筒井。盐井处共有井口2眼。一眼汲卤熬盐,另一眼抽取淡水。在云龙各盐井中,诺邓井卤水含盐量最高、产量最大。由于无人照看,2眼井口已为地下水淹没而废弃,只有盐井旁边的湿地上还渗出斑斑洁白的盐渍,表明这里不久前还有过食盐的生产,这里的卤水还没有全部枯竭。

  国营盐厂旧址
  这里是解放后国家和集体生产食盐的地方,有一间百余平方米的通透式房屋,下有数个熬制食盐的大灶和铁锅、卤水槽等生产工具。自诺邓的盐业停产后,村民在这里淹制诺邓火腿。当跨进这个旧址时,房梁上到处悬挂着布满洁白盐粒的诺邓火腿,使人感受到诺邓的盐业经济并没有结束。

  五井盐课提举司衙门旧址
  公元1383年明政府在全国置七个“盐课提举司”,云南就有四个,这里就是其中之一的“五井盐课提举司”衙门旧址。后来提举司衙门外迁,这里就演变成了诺邓黄氏家族私宅区,族人乃将原提举大门改造成登载本家科举功名的“题名坊”。清代黄氏门中共出两进士、五举人及上百名秀才,康乾年间举人黄桂是名噪一时的饱学之士,曾被誉为“滇中一儒杰”。

(诺邓的古民居形式各异,甚少雷同  作者:佚名)
古民居建筑
  诺邓目前存有的一百多座依山构建、形式多变、风格典雅的古代民居院落,主要以明朝和清朝时期为主,主要分布在村中的山洼和西北阳坡上,特别是北山坡,层层叠叠,楼院重接。村中的街巷道路,清一色的石板铺成,因山就势,纵横交错。

  北山主体民居建筑
  现存明、清两朝古建筑40余个院落。皆因山就势构建,层层叠叠,往往是前家后门即通后家大院,且有古街铺、古市肆等,街向纵横交错。故又称“北山重楼”
  黄家宅子:现存民居建筑属明清时期所建的约20余处院落,黄氏家族所植三百多年的高山榕,诺邓人取名叫“万年青”,荫盖着古提举司衙门前的下马场。
  多台院落:因北山民居皆建于陡坡之上,便形成了一种“台梯式四合院”,天井之内有三、四层台面,逐级上堂,风格独特。
  袖珍小院:诺邓村人烟密集而地面有限,很多民居的安排都很紧凑,精巧玲珑。北山一户人家的小四合院天井面积只有一平方米多一点,堪称袖珍小院。

  河东民居建筑群
  现存明清建筑30余个院落。其中“四合五天井”为全村最大的民宅。
  四合五天井:院中间一个大天井,四边有四个小天井,上房、耳房、面房都设有堂屋,四面楼房相通可巡回来往,即“走马转角楼”结构。
  贡爷家风:河东贡爷院前堂有清代中期遗留的屋梁焚烧痕迹,传说是无人在家时大楼失火但仅焚毁一梁即自灭,该贡生即以此保留作代代家教样本,告诫后人须重视文化、遵守礼乐、行义好善。

  河头民居建筑
  现存明清建筑约10余处,其中“银匠家”等院落建筑古老、特殊,建于300多年前。
  银匠旧居:明末以来,杨氏家族的银制工艺名声远播,银匠旧居在河头一带比较古旧,为明末所建。

  其他民居
  屋檐五滴:诺邓民居其四合院异于平原地区。正房与厢(耳)房、面房高低错落不在一个平面,故形成了前后左右屋面瓦檐上下层层递接的“五滴水四合院”或“四滴水”、“六滴水”等屋檐现象,全村这类院落十分普遍。
  进士家雕:清乾隆间进士黄绍魁旧居有精致的木雕图案,尤以中堂正上方的“黄榜题名荣归故里”图及“麒麟探花、双凤朝阳”书案为珍品。
  窗棂百式:诺邓村古建筑中窗棂格式达数百种之多,尤以菱花式、书条式、万字式的变形居多。至今每幢民居中都可见到风格多样的古代精致木窗。
  花雕大门:白族民居非常重视大门建筑的美观大方,诺邓村民各家大门头上的木雕图案十分精致,且形式各异,一家不同于一家,其形式内容一般都反映着主人的身份地位和文化修养。
  道长月台:明清以来道教在诺邓地区影响较大,清末民初一位著名道长的家宅旧址,其建筑特色是院内有一般民居都不可能有的庭前月台,在此可作法事或弹演洞经等。

其他值得看景点
  黄霞昌家庭生态博物馆
  村民黄永寿办了一家家庭博物馆,一是受大理博物馆的委托,二是自己家里宝贝比较多。黄家在仕途和商途上都曾经辉煌过,黄永寿祖上是诺邓井有名的盐产业大户,500多年来,黄氏家族共出秀才百余人、贡生26人、举人4人、进士2人,有“复甲留芳”之美誉,家里便累积下来很多宝贝,现存250多件艺术珍品。在诺邓,几乎每家每户都有些历史背景和价值不斐的古董。为了保护当地文化,大理州决定以家庭为单位建立“家庭生态博物馆”,这在全国尚属首例。
  电话:15894568508 15887364404
  讲解费:5元/人

周边景点

(太极锁水的自然奇观  作者:米绫玛)
  太极锁水
  从云龙县城去诺邓路上,距诺邓3公里左右会经过“太极锁水”的天然奇观。诺邓河在与澜沧江支流沘江交汇的地方,绕了一个“S”型的大弯,形成了类似道教“太极图”的天然地貌奇观,古人称之为“太极锁水”。从远处看,云蒸霞蔚,四周群峰环绕拱卫,真有万山朝拜之势,虽然这只是地质构造运动中通过河流深切形成的特殊地貌,但后来人们赋予它许多神奇的传说和故事,成为一个天生的道教文化符号。
  地址:云龙县区诺邓的路上

   天池
  天池距诺邓29公里,距县城22多公里,目前没有直通车,需要到客运站边包车去。这个海拔2552米的高山湖泊,四周森林茂密、植被完好,共有高等植物60多科200余种,还有国家二、三级保护动物19种。秀丽的湖光山色和繁茂的森林草甸使天池风景无比旖旎迷人。
  地址:
  门票:10元

  云龙“桥梁博物馆”
  “桥梁博物馆”不是常规意义的博物馆,只是形容古桥多。古时云龙的盐不但要供给滇西各地,而且远销东南亚。为方便马帮运输,云龙县从唐朝开始在穿境而过的澜沧江和沘江上建造了一百多座风格各异的桥梁,故自称为“桥梁艺术博物馆”。但古桥分布极其分散,松水藤桥在白石乡、通金桥在长新乡、砥柱桥在宝丰乡、飞龙桥和功果桥在旧州乡,还有彩凤桥、青云桥等,最好包车游览。

诺邓古村出游地图


诺邓古村位置图(点击看大图)

诺邓古村手绘导游图

诺邓古村当地交通

  诺邓比较偏远,在2007年诺邓通公路之前,诺邓与县城唯一的联系是那条走了千年的盐马古道,也正交通不便得以保存千年古村的原始风貌。诺邓离云龙县城有8公里,距州府大理有175公里,距省会昆明500公里。提醒:昆明到大理交通,终点站都是下关(大理新城区)。

公共交通(需先到大理)
  飞机
  昆明和大理都有机场,距诺邓最近的是大理机场,但大理的航班少且贵,经济情况一般的游客建议飞昆明,在网上提前订票更合算。
  大理机场目前通航的城市有北京、上海、天津、昆明、广州、成都等。大理机场到下关城区约12公里,机场没有大巴,出租车到下关统一收费50元。机场电话: 0872-2428955
  昆明长水国际机场有通往全国大部分城市的航线。机场到市中心6公里,机场大巴、公交车、出租车均可到达。机场电话:0871-96566
  火车
  大理火车站主要通达昆明、丽江两地,省外的游客需做到昆明,昆明只有一个火车客运站,即昆明站。详细了解:http://www.12306.cn/mormhweb/
  昆明到大理有6趟列车,约7—8小时,建议坐夜车(卧铺),一觉醒来就到大理火车站了。
  客车
  汽车是云南主要的交通方式,云南十八怪,火车没有汽车快,所以汽车是进出大理最方便、最经济的选择。在昆明西部客运站有去大理的车。
  大理有五个汽车客运站,昆明到大理的车停靠地点不一,直快停在大理快速客运站,高快、小车一般停在兴盛客运站或新东站,还有一些卧铺车会停在火车站边上。

  到达诺邓
  大理到诺邓目前只有一种方案,在下关兴盛客运站坐汽车到云龙县城(7:10-16:30,40分钟1趟,44元),约3小时。
  在云龙坐三轮摩托到诺邓,半小时,三轮包车20元,遇赶集日人多时5元/人。

自驾车
  大理方向:从下关上大保高速公路,驾车大约40公里,从跃进口出高速公路,沿320国道前进,在黄连铺转上227省道,到云龙县城,从县城沿兰坪方向的公路行3公里,过一座大吊桥,再行3公里水泥路就到诺邓了。
  大理下关至诺邓约150公里,自驾车2个半小时。云龙距诺邓约7公里,是土夹碎石路,轿车可以通过。
  诺邓村内皆是台阶、石板路,只行马不通车,各式交通只能到诺邓村口,下车后步行进入诺邓村,诺邓村口有小型停车场。

诺邓古村当地住宿


(诺邓古村民居的小院子  作者:流浪的歌)
  诺邓村目前大约有六家客栈,一般是在当地民居中经营,吃住一体。民居都有百年历史,各家都有天井院子、露天餐桌等,住的是百年老屋,吃的是陈年火腿。各家腌制的火腿悬挂在老屋子房梁上,像古装剧的场景。每家卫生条件和硬件设施稍有参差,到村子后可以打电话给客栈,客栈都会有人来接。
  大青树客栈(古村吃住店)
  推荐理由:客栈在大青树旁边,主人是村子唯一的老中医,出自五代中医世家,凡入住本店客人均可免费问诊、看病。还有特色草药泡脚、睡前养生针灸等。
  电话:15288113286
  价格:标间100—150元;单人间80元;床位40元/人。餐饮50元/人。

  诺邓五滴水客栈
      推荐理由:离停车场最近的一个客栈,在停车场旁边古戏台和龙王庙背后。客栈是明清时期的白族民居四合院,有两百年的历史,老板是本地白族人。下雨时,雨水需要经过四层错落有致的屋檐面,滴五次,才落到天井,故称五滴水四合院。
  电话:13769218514
  价格:两人间60元;单人间30元。餐饮20元/人。

  复甲留芳苑客栈
  推荐理由:客栈是在村子偏高的位置,需要爬台阶,有特色大通铺。饮食比较地道,掌勺人黄大妈做菜手艺在诺邓远近闻名,是黄霞昌家庭博物馆的主人,可点餐,亦可拼餐,丰俭由己。
  电话:18313166264 0872-5525032
  价格:两人间99元;床位30元/人。餐饮30元左右/人。

  古道坊客栈
  推荐理由:客栈在村西边中央位置,客栈建筑很有特色,为当地唯一的合梯式四合院,院落的各种装饰物件也是收来的古物,同这个两百多年的院子融为一体。
  电话:13508868076
  价格:标间120—160元;床位30、40元。餐饮40元左右/人。

诺邓古村当地饮食


(地道的诺邓本土菜中不可缺少诺邓火腿和土鸡  作者:佚名)
  说到诺邓的饮食,不得不提诺邓火腿,在诺邓,每家每户都能用诺邓火腿烹制出几十多种菜肴,但因为地处深山,赶集需要到县城,除了火腿,其他的饮食也都是平常家常菜。饮食一般在住宿地解决,除了上面介绍的客栈提供饮食,停车场附近还有一家只供餐饮不设住宿的店:
  盐泉农家
  推荐理由:该农家主做餐饮,有土鸡火锅、火腿宴等招牌菜,火腿宴是以诺邓火腿为主菜,配以火腿烹制的各式菜肴,一桌600元,6—9人量。
  电话: 0872-5525111
  价格:人均25元

当地特色美食及特产
  诺邓的农作物主要是玉米和豌豆,其他的菜要出去买,或者山上找野生菜。洋芋是隔山村子种的,每周五用马驮来卖,翻山越岭,需走7个多小时,天没亮出发,中午左右才能到诺邓。因诺邓近几年逐渐受到关注,村中一些几近消失的特色饮食也恢复了。

(据说在火腿厂买火腿会便宜很多,火腿厂每天都要接多个订货电话  作者:佚名)
  诺邓火腿、诺邓盐
  因《舌尖上的中国》而扬名天下,一般是家家腌制,用的是诺邓自产的井盐,肉采用天然饲料喂养大的猪的后腿,腌制后隔年食用,三年可生食。过去只用它作礼物,而今市场上也可买到了,现在养猪、腌肉、卖火腿仍是诺邓人营生的手段之一。在诺邓古镇,你去任何一家,推开院门,都能看见在院内一处阴凉下悬挂的火腿。看起来粗糙,吃起来美味。但火腿好吃不易制,“千年等一腿”,一句广告语道出了诺邓火腿制作过程的长期性。诺邓火腿属于“物以稀为贵”的典范,腌制完成一只火腿需要不少时间和心血。即便是现在,火腿的产量每年也只有不到100吨,无法满足慕名前来的食客们的胃口。
  诺邓的农户家都有火腿出售,比如客栈里,一般整只火腿在500—700元,论斤算是50—60元/斤,因部位不同,价格不同。《舌尖上的中国》让诺邓火腿闻名全国,诺邓火腿之所以好吃,是因为腌制火腿的盐巴。那盐是从村里一口千年盐井里来的。村里人家都有筒盐出售。
  豆饼
  豆饼是诺邓的特产,现在极少有人做,后因游客渐多,村中也恢复了诺邓特产豆饼的生产。制作原料是上好糯米、刺荚、灰挑杆、魔芋、扁豆杆、红糖等。制成2毫米厚左右的薄圆饼凉干即成。食用时用香油煎,其特点是香、脆、糯、甜。
  油粉汤
  与丽江特色小吃鸡豆凉粉原理一样,以豌豆为原料,豌豆磨成浆,过滤、澄粉。豆粉沉淀时,上层粉舀出做成汤,即油粉汤。下层粉比较黏稠,小火稍熬,晾凉后即是豌豆凉粉,切块拌上佐料,口感与藕粉相像。
  血肠
  用豆腐、红曲、鲜猪血、草果粉、茴香粉、盐搅拌均匀后灌入洗干净的猪大肠中,灌好后用细绳扎成6寸左右的小段,干燥、阴凉、通风后20天即可食用,其特点是鲜嫩馨香。  

诺邓古村行程规划


(诺邓个各景点都有指示牌,非常方便  作者:虫虫)
  游览诺邓古村一般需要2个多小时,对古迹有兴趣的常常在这里住几天,村中各主要景点都有指示牌,便于游览。
  诺邓位于两山之间,依山而建,一条小溪(诺邓河)由东北向西南流过村子,把村子一分为二,半坡上的大青树是古村的中心。从村口到大青树有两条路,石头铺就的古道,恰好构成一道步行环线。一条是由村口过河,沿着石头步道向上,走到大青树约10分钟,路陡;另一条是经过龙王庙、盐井等景点到大青树,沿途有多处古民居可参观,路缓。村子最高处是玉皇阁建筑群。村民都知道些历史背景,不懂之处可以向村民请教。
  冬季是诺邓村民开始制盐的季节,这时各家也开始腌制火腿了,如果凑巧,可以看到很热闹的场面。诺邓在山坳里,没有地光污染,星空也很美。

  当地注意事项
  1.诺邓盛产盐业,也是个很缺水的村子,建议大家节约用水。
  2.当地人很热情淳朴,只是稍微注意猫狗蚊虫。
  3.衣物可带长袖衣物,以保夜晚防寒。
  4.诺邓是白族居住地,注意尊重少数民族习惯。
  5.村中集市每月“赶”四次,逢初一、十五“赶大街”,初八、二十三为“赶小街”。

诺邓古村其他信息


(一个因盐业发展起来的小村落,曾是盐马古道的重镇  作者:元吾的世界)
关于诺邓
       诺邓的历史和发展

  “诺邓”村名见诸于史籍已经有1138年的历史,历经唐、宋、元、明、清各代王朝,它在古代可是个了不得的地方。唐代樊绰的《蛮书》中已经对诺邓有明确记载,此书的成书年代在唐懿宗咸通三年,即公元862年。以此推算,诺邓至今至少应该有1140年以上的历史。这就是说,这里最迟在唐朝就已经凿井制盐,是一个典型的以盐井为生存依托的村落。
  “诺邓”这个名称一直延续至今。诺邓过去一般称为“诺邓井”或“诺井”。“井”就是盐井。根据云南史料记载,云南井矿盐业在秦汉时期就已产生。从西汉至南北朝时期,云龙为比苏县,汉朝设置比苏县的根本原因就是这个地方产盐。
  从有明确记述的唐代开始,诺邓村的演变发展完全依赖于盐业经济的兴衰。南诏时期“细诺邓井”的盐业生产已经具备了相当的规模。公元1383年,明政府设云南四提举司,其中有“五井盐课提举司”,治所即在诺邓,所谓五井即指诺邓井、山井、师井、大井、顷荡井。到明朝中后期,五井提举司年上缴中央政府的盐课银达38000多两。李元阳纂《嘉靖大理府志》记载:“后开五井,始分行盐地方台井之盐,专行大理;五井之盐,专行永昌”。可见诺邓等五井地区所产食盐在滇西早已负有盛名。《雍正云龙州志》记:“诺邓、顺荡(盐)味更咸,不必浇灶,而遂能成沙”。因诺邓盐质非比寻常,保山、腾冲一带自古以来都十分喜欢食用“诺盐”。由于盐业经济的发达,诺邓村历史上曾一度成为滇西地区的商业中心之一,在《嘉靖大理府志》所列市肆中地位重要。古代诺邓的“茶马古道”,东向大理昆明,甫至保山腾冲,西接六库片马,北连兰坪丽江,四方商贾云集,百业昌盛。诺邓村历史上曾一度成为滇西地区的商业中心之一。
  诺邓如今已成为国家级历史文化名村,影响力在不断增强。诺邓人口最多时曾有两千多户常住人口,流动人口六七千,是个繁华的村子,而今村中经济潇条,人口大量外流,村中只剩下300来户。所幸自2000年来村子倍受关注,好多将失传的东西得到抢救。

(诺邓人才辈出,图为黄氏家族的提名坊  作者:林坚)

  诺邓“盛产”进士、秀才
  尽管云龙地处偏僻,交通不便,但明、清两朝还是文风蔚然、人才辈出。诺邓村的科举,在云龙中“进士”的为最多(清代三人中诺邓就有二人),举人、贡生和秀才则不胜枚举,目前仅从几户诺邓人家族谱上查实的贡生就有40余名,秀才则有200多人。如村中有一杨姓人家号称“贡爷院”,世代均系贡生出生。清代康乾年间,诺邓村举人黄桂是声噪一时的文化名人,被誉为“滇中一儒杰”,云南最早的诗歌总集《滇南诗略》曾收选黄桂诗词数首。在儒家文化的熏陶下,诺邓旧时尊孔习俗相当浓郁,诺邓的孔庙建筑精巧,尤以大成殿规格严谨细密,每年祭孔活动规模都十分隆重,缛礼繁节,传统的儒门意识形态在诺邓村的反映非常明显。

  诺邓民居特色
  诺邓民居建筑式样与大理的白族民居相似,有“三房一照壁”、“四合一天井”、“四合五天井”等建筑布局,但因依山而建,构思奇巧变化,风格也呈多样性,上家的门口往往和下家的房顶同高。民居尤讲求盖门楼,通常盖门楼的形式有“一滴水”,即为普通的坡屋,朴素大方;“三滴水”,则显现了一种华丽,其建筑精美,飞檐翘角,最高的达到五滴水。
  诺邓的民居很讲究工艺美术,门、窗、木梁、柱、檐上的雕刻图案精细美观,山墙、院墙上均有绘画或图案,每户人家的正房、厢房或照壁的布置和工艺,各具特色,各有千秋,绝少雷同。很多人家至今还保留着明清时代的一些家具、古董。

  多民族融合的白族大家庭
  诺邓村民素有“九杨十八姓”的说法。自元、明以来,南京、浙江、福建、湖南、江西、山西等地陆续有移民或因经商仕宦之故迁来,在同当地原住居民融汇结合后,形成了诺邓村现有居民诸家族。从这些家族族谱分析,最先到诺邓居住的各家族先人去世后均为火葬。经过几代人同原住民的融汇,他们既保持着内地的传统习俗,也同当地的主体民族--白族结合为一个新的群体,因此,清代至今,诺邓村民已全部成为白族居民,他们一直都保持着完整的白族语言和白族风俗特征。如在宗教信仰上,白族的本主崇拜在诺邓村仍十分有影响,诺邓的本主是明朝三征麓川的领导人王骥,称为“三崇”。除了“本主信仰”,诺邓村“三教一体”的特征也十分明显,信奉佛教,也信奉道教,尤其是在宗教活动和庙宇建筑上,道教的特点更为突出。诺邓村庙宇建筑在康乾时期甚为鼎盛,至今犹存玉皇阁庙宇建筑群及香山寺、古岭寺、云崇寺、观音寺、王母寺、龙王庙等,而村里旧时举行的祭祀、迎神赛会、接祖、节庆典礼等诸多活动都带有儒道两门特色。

(诺邓人对儒家文化几近痴迷,图为孔子文化节,村民自发祭拜孔子  作者:佚名)

  宗教文化
  在诺邓的传统文化宝库中,宗教文化是个重要的组成部份。它历史久远,内容丰富,渗透于生产生活的各个领域,以致形成习俗。1、本主信仰。本主崇拜是诺邓村民最早和固有的宗教信仰,它从远古时期宗教的早期形式自然崇拜发展到崇信天鬼的原始宗教,进而达到人为宗教阶段。诺邓本主是“敕封五井土主护国安民圣帝”,总管本村生产生活、生死祸福,穿着帝王服饰和娘娘平排同座于三崇庙,两侧塑文武判官。2、尊儒祀孔。明初诺邓有了孔子塑像,到清初修成了崇圣宫,古代每到农历八月二十七日,全村人都要在这里举行隆重的祭孔活动,至于因上学赶考,入泮中试来祭拜的各地学子则你来我往,络绎不绝。3、奉释礼佛。佛教从唐宋以来直至清末曾在诺邓盛行一时,村内外曾修建过许多佛寺庙堂。在诺邓,儒释道三教合一的信仰一直是民间崇拜的主要内容。4、崇道修斋。在诺邓儒释道三教合一信仰中,流传最广泛的是道教文化。礼斗会是道教每年六月和九月举行的朝礼南北斗的重大活动。古代诺邓道教除玉皇阁曾有头陀羽士,云集其间外,还有很多的“火居道”。5、谈演洞经。诺邓村谈演洞经是一种用音乐形式和礼仪程式进行的宗教活动,形式虽近乎儒家礼乐,但从经文内容贯穿的因果报应,积德安和等思想及所崇奉的神灵来看,基本上仍是三教合一的范畴。

白族相关风俗及禁忌
  白族服饰
  云龙白族妇女服饰的主要特点是突出线条美及适用性。妇女头上带有白色、兰色或黑色的大包头,一般长度2—3米,戴在头上既可遮太阳又可避雨,必要时可解下来作背带用。上身穿前短后长的大襟衫,布的色彩根据各人的喜好而定,下身穿大禅裤,腰系绣花围腰,体现人体的线条美。而围腰必须时将两角编入腰部成了一个大包包,可用来装物件。云龙白族男子上身穿有领对襟衣,下穿长管大统裤,布料色彩根据各人的喜好而制作,男服美观大方,穿上显得更潇洒。但诺邓村多数白族妇女的服饰一般都与汉族地区的差不多。
  白族相关禁忌
  1、宾客来家时,倒茶一般只倒半杯,倒酒则需满杯,他们认为酒满敬人,茶满欺人。受到白族人热情的款待,应说声挪卫你 (谢谢)来表示你的谢意和感激之情。
  2、起床后的第一杯早茶要先敬给老人。吃饭时要让老人坐上席,由老人先动筷子。在老人面前不说脏话,不准跷二郎腿。
  3、落座时,男性长辈坐左上方,女性长辈坐右上方,客人和晚辈坐下方和上方。不得乱坐。
  4、白族人家的火塘是个神圣的地方,忌讳向火塘内吐口水,禁止从火塘上跨过。
  5、尊敬长辈是白族的传统美德。见到老人要主动打招呼、问候、让道、让座、端茶、递烟。
  6、白族人家的门槛不能坐。
  7、男人所用的工具,忌妇女从上面跨过。

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诺邓古村当地视频


《舌尖上的中国》之《自然的馈赠》

千年白族村—诺邓

诺邓古村出游参考


(《遥远的诺邓》开机仪式设在诺邓  作者:佚名)
  电影《遥远的诺邓》
  《遥远的诺邓》是一部以反应大理白族群众保护传统文化为主题的民族电影,颜丹晨在影片中饰演了一个学习美术,并到了诺邓深山支教的白族姑娘樱子。后来樱子渐渐被诺邓吸引,并为这里的文化而折服,最终利用自己的特长保护了诺邓古学堂。
  纪录片《舌尖上的中国》
  在《舌尖上的中国》第一集《自然的馈赠》中,有一段6分钟长的关于云南诺邓火腿的影像,介绍了诺邓火腿的制作、与诺邓盐之间的相互关系,除了新鲜的食材,有时成就美食的调味料也同样来自于自然。正是这短短的6分钟,让诺邓火腿瞬间名声大噪。

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